Articles and Resources
This section contains a collection of articles about Functional Fluency, its development and applications.
1. “Functional Fluency for Educational Transactional Analysts” 2002. Susannah Temple
This is an updated text (2002) of the original 1999 Transactional Analysis Journal article, TAJ Vol. 29, No. 3. Susannah updated the text in preparation for the German translation published in Zeitschrift für Transakionsanalyse 4/2002 Journal of the German Association for Transactional Analysis (DGTA).
The original text showed the stacked circle diagrams and PAC terminology in use at the start of the research project to develop the Temple Index of Functional Fluency. One of the discoveries of the project was that it is vital to differentiate between ego state models and the Functional Fluency model, hence this updated version with revised diagrams and terminology.
2. “Update on the Functional Fluency Model in Education” 2004 Susannah Temple. Transactional Analysis Journal Vol. 34, No. 3, July 2004.
This article gives the rationale for the development and use of the functional fluency model. It elaborates the theme of the European Association for Transactional Analysis Newsletter articles by Ian Stewart, October 2002 (Issue No. 75) and Susannah Temple, February 2003 (Issue No. 76) concerning the ongoing difficulties with the traditional ‘Functional Model of Ego States’. This article emphasises the educational potential of the Functional Fluency model for the psycho/social development of both children and adults.
3. “Building Self-Awareness” 2004 Susannah Temple.
Antidote’s Emotional Literacy Update February 2004 Issue 4. This is a short outline of the use of the Functional Fluency model for enhancing emotional literacy.
4. “TIFF and Leadership” 2004 Susannah Temple.
Adapted version of a conference paper given at the Institute of Developmental Transactional Analysis (IDTA) Annual Conference Birmingham September 2004.
This paper outlines the Functional Fluency model and shows how it relates to leadership training and development.
5. “The Graphics of Ego States” 1996 Servaas van Beekum
Conference Reader for the Advanced Working Conference designated by the ITAA, March 14-16 1996 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
This paper points the way towards the development of a separate model of ego state functioning. It is especially important because it introduces the idea of visual differentiation in the diagrams for structure and function of ego states.
6. “Teachers are Young People's Leaders” 2005 Susannah Temple
Antidote's Emotional Literacy Update September 2005 Issue 20.
This article makes clear links between Functional Fluency, emotional literacy and classroom leadership. It outlines how teachers can develop in positive ways the leadership role that they play with young people.
7. “Das Functional-Fluency-Modell in der Pädagogik – der neueste Stand” 2007 Susannah Temple
This is a translation of the 2004 TA Journal article – see number 2 above for details.
It is a version of that published in the Zeitschrift für Transaktionsanalyse 1/2007 by Junfermann Verlag, Imadstrasse 40, D-33102, Paderborn, Germany. It has been amended here for the sake of consistency of terminology.
8. "Bringing Up the Child:The Importance of Functionally Fluent Parents, Carers & Educators" 2008 Susannah Temple
This is Chapter 17 of the book "The adult is parent to the child: transactional analysis with children and young people", edited by Keith Tudor and published by Russel House Publishing, who have kindly granted permission for the inclusion of Chapter 17 on this web site. This chapter gives an in-depth account of how the Functional Fluency model can be used to illustrate and illuminate the interplay between patterns of upbringing and ways of growing up.
9. "Mentors, Coaches and the Empowerment Factor – why Functional Fluency is important" 2009 Susannah Temple
This article makes the case for personal development for coaches and mentors. It shows how the Functional Fluency model can help with this process by promoting inspiring leadership and sensitive support. Useful for coaches and their trainers.
10. "The Functional Fluency Model has Come of Age" 2009 Susannah Temple
This article gives an updated introduction to the original piece entitled "Action on the Functional Model", published in 2003 in the Newsletter of the European Association of Transactional Analysis (EATA). The article was, and is, a declaration of the reason and purpose for the creation of the Functional Fluency Model.
An article evaluating the use of TIFF as part of the SMART Women Project in Cornwall 2007 – 2008. The project aimed to assist over 200 self employment women or those working in management, to become more effective in their roles. Results gave evidence of how TIFF enhanced their self-esteem, objectivity, empathy and courage in both their personal and professional lives.
A study of over 30 TIFF profiles completed by women survivors of domestic violence/abuse being supported in their recovery through the SUsie Project in Cornwall.
This article suggests that, by encouraging managers and staff in organisations to adopt functionally fluent behaviours that produce positive outcomes, the present mismatch between theory and practice can be bridged.
This article tells the story of how OELAN, an IT consultancy company in Holland is putting Functional Fluency and TIFF to use.
This section contains resources including some printable handouts about Functional Fluency and TA.
1. Functional Fluency Model: descriptions of the nine behavioural modes
In this diagram there are some words to describe each of the nine modes.
2. The Functional Fluency Modes in Action
This gives a summary of both the model and the nature of the nine modes by illustrating each with a word picture.
3. The Functional Fluency Model
This shows the three categories, the five elements and the nine modes all together as a reminder of the construction of the model.
4. "Re-enact - or - react - or - respond? That is the question!"
Using the Integrating Adult model of ego states, this diagram shows how the Functional Fluency model depicts the options for Adult social behaviour. Functional Fluency is a model of human social behaviour separate from the ego state model, but with close conceptual links. It enables clear separation of ego state structure and function. NB a black & white version of the diagram is available here
This shows the Functional Fluency model superimposed on a structural diagram of ego states, using the Integrating Adult Model of ego states with contaminations depicted.
6. The Structural Sources Diagram
This outline shows how the Functional Fluency model can be used as a behavioural diagnosis for any category of ego state – Parent, Adult or Child.
7. Transactional Analysis Philosophy, Principles and Practice
This table shows the congruence between TA’s philosophy, its principles and its practice that is ideally demonstrated by TA practitioners. It is this coherence and consistency that contributes so powerfully to the efficacy of TA methodology.
8. Abstract of the Doctoral Thesis "Development of a Transactional Analysis Psychometric Tool for Enhancing Functional Fluency", University of Plymouth 2002.
Please note: to request access to the full thesis, contact Susannah Temple at the TIFF Network
12. Functional Fluency model section as a PDF 8-page booklet